Practical English Usage

408 participles (-ing and -ed forms) (1): introduction
1 names
현재분사(Ving), 과거분사(Ved)라고 하지만, 적절하지 않은 표현. 시제와 무관함. 모두 과거/현재/미래 시제에서 사용가능함.

She was crying when I saw her.
Who's the man talking to Elizabeth?
This time tomorrow I'll be lying on the beach.
It was broken in the storm.
The kids are excited.
The new school is going to be opened next week.

2 use
a verb forms
be, have와 함께 쓰여 진행, 완료, 수동의 의미를 표현한다.
It was raining when I got home. (진행)
I've forgotten your name. (완료)
You'll be told ASAP. (수동)

b adjectives
I love the noise of falling rain.
John has become very boring.
She says she's got a broken heart.
The house looked abandoned.

c adverbs
She ran screaming out of the room.

d clauses
분사는 다른 단어와 결합되어 clause-like 구조가 될 수 있다.
Who's the fat man sitting in the corner?
Having lost all my money, I went home.
Most of the people invited to the party didn't turn up.
Rejected by all his friends, he decided to become a monk.

409 participles (2): active and passive
1 active present participles, passive past participles
-ing 형태가 형용사나 부사처럼 쓰일 때, active verb 와 비슷한 의미를 가진다.
falling leaves (=leaves that fall)
a meat-eating animal (=an animal that eats meat)
She walked out smiling. (=She was smiling.)

모든 과거분사는 수동의 의미를 가진다 형용사나 부사로 쓰일 때
a broken heart (=a heart that has been broken)
He lived alone, forgotten by everybody. (=He had been forgotten by everybody.)

2 interested and interesting etc
interested, bored, excited - 사람이 느낄 때
interesting, boring - 그런 감정을 불러일으키는 사람이나 things
I was interested in the lesson. The lesson is really interesting.
I didn't enjoy the party because I was bored. It was a terribly boring party.
The children always get excited when Granny comes. Granny takes the children to exciting place.
His explanations make me very confused. He's a very confusing writer.

3 exceptions: a fallen leaf, an escaped prisoners etc
4 active past participles: advanced points

410 participles (3): details
1 use as adjectives: an interesting books
분사는 명사 앞에서, be동사, linking verbs 뒤에서 형용사로 자주 쓰인다
an interesting book
a lost dog
a falling leaf
screaming children.
The upstairs toilet window is broken.
his idea seems exciting.

형용사로 쓰인 분사는 목적어를 가질 수 있다
English-speaking Canadians.
a fox-hunting man
Is that watch self-winding?

명사 앞의 분사는 다양한 형태를 가질 수 있음
quick-growing trees
home-made cake
a recently-built house
government-inspired rumours
the above-mentioned point

2 after nouns: the people questioned
명사를 정의하거나 identify하기 위해 명사 뒤에 분사를 씀 (관계대명사절처럼)
We couldn't agree on any of the problems discussed.
The people questioned gave very different opinions.
I watched the match because I knew some of the people playing.
I got the only ticket left.

3 differences of meaning
위치에 따라 의미가 변화함

4 much or very with past participles
5 frightened by / frightened of
6 speical past participle forms

411 participles (4): clauses (분사절?)
1 structures
There's a woman crying her eyes out over there.
most of the people invited to the reception where old friends.
Not knowing what to do, I telephoned the police.
Served with milk and sugar, it makes a delicious breakfast.

2 after nouns: the people invited to the party
명사 또는 대명사 뒤에 분사절 사용가능
We can offer you a job cleaning cars.
There's Neville, eating as usual.
In came the first runner, closely followed by the second.
I found him sitting at a table covered with papers.

분사절은 관계절과 매우 비슷함. 완전한 동사 대신에 분사가 사용되는 것만 다름.
Who's the girl dancing with your brother?
Anyone touching that wire will get a shock.
Half of the people invited to the party didn't turn up.

완료분사는 이런식으로 자주 사용되진 않음
Do you know anybody who's lost a cat?

3 adverbial clauses: Putting down my paper, I ...
분사절은 완전한 부사절과 비슷하게 사용될 수 있다. 조건, 이유, 시간 관계, 결과 등을 표현한다(그런 아이디어가 너무 명확해서 접속하가 그것을 알려주기 위해 필요하지 않을 때만). 부사적 분사절은 보통 formal한 표현.
Used economically, one tin will last for six seeks. (=If it is used ...)
Having failed my medical exams, I took up teaching. (=As I had failed...)
Putting down my newspaper, I walked over to the window. (After I had put down my newspaper, ...)
It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday.(=... so that it completely ruined our holiday)

원래 진행형으로 잘 쓰이지 않는 be, have, know 가 -ing 붙어 이유나 원인을 나타내는 부사절로 쓰이기도 함.
Being unable to help in any other way, I gave her some money.
Not wishing to continue my studies, I decided to become a dress designer.
Knowing her pretty well, I realized something was wrong.

4 subjects; misrelated participles
보통 부사적 분사절의 주어는 주절의 주어와 같다.
My wife had a talk with Sally, explaining the problem. 

아닌 경우도 많고 흔하다
Looking out of the window of our hotel room, there was a wonderful range of mountains.
Being French, it's surprising that she's such a terrible cook.
Having so little time, there was not much that I could do.

관용적 표현
Generally speaking, men can run faster that women.
Broadly speaking, dogs are more faithful than cat.
Judging from his expression, he's in a bad mood.
Considering everything, it wasn't a bad holiday.
Supposing there was a war, what would you do?
Taking everything into consideration, they ought to get another chance.

5 participle clauses with their own subjects
스스로의 주어가 있는 부사절 (formal style)
Nobody having any more to say, the meeting was closed.
All the money having been spent, we started looking for work.
A little girl walked past, her doll dragging behind her on the pavement.
Hands held high, the dancers circle to the right.

주어가 with로 소개됨 accompanying circumstances(부대상황?)을 표현할 때
A car roared past with smoke pouring from the exhaust.
With Peter working in Birmingham, and Lucy travelling most of the week, the house seems pretty empty.

6 participle clauses after conjunctions and prepositions
after, before, since, when, while, on, without, instead of, in spite of, as + -ing(분사인지 동명사인지 구분은 애매함)

After talking to you I always feel better.
After having annoyed everybody he went home.
Depress clutch before changing gear.
She's been quite different since coming back from America.
When telephoning from abroad, dial 1865, not 01865.
On being introduced, British people often shake hands.
They left without saying goodbye.
She struck me as being a very nervy kind of person.

if, when, while, once, until + p.p (formal)
If asked to look after luggage for someone else, inform police at once.
When opened, keep in refrigerator.
Once deprived of oxegen, the brain dies.
Leave in oven until cooked to a light brown colour.

7 object complements
지각동사(sensation - see, hear, feel, watch, notice, smell) + O + partciple (clause)
find, get, have, make + O + participle (clause)
I saw a small girl standing in the goldfish pond.
Have you ever heard a nightingale singing?
I found her drinking my whisky.
We'll have to get the car repaired before Tuesday.
Do you think you can get the radio working?
We'll soon have you walking again.
I can make myself understood pretty well in English.