construal: the way a speaker chooses to 'package ' and 'present' a conceptual representation, which in turn has consequences for the conceptual representation that the utterance evokes in the mind of the hearer

2 levels - 1: speaker choose, 2: language inbuilt/conventional
! Thus, to some extent, learning a new language involves learning how to present phenomena from slightly different perspectives and an inability to do this will often result in very unnatural-sounding language

- we continually highlight some features of a phenomenon and leave others in the shade.
- linguistic differences in attention and salience do have an effect on cognition.

direction, absolute orientation, ego-centricity,

constitution: how close we are to a particular phenomenon, and how fine-grained our description of it is

- "fuzzy boundaries"
- cross-linguistic differences
- by learning to speak another language, we develop more flexibility in our categorization systems
- when people speak two languages that construe events differently, they are able to store both types of construal within a single system, and that they can switch between the two with ease.

* Construal may thus be one area of SLL where learners benefit from explicit instruction.

Littlemore, J. (2009). Applying cognitive linguistics to second language learning and teaching. London: Palgrave Macmillan.