X' Syntax

Cross-Categorial Generalisations


Specifier
 - specify the Head + Complement
 - appears only if the meaning of the phrase requires it

complement
 - appears on ly if the Head of a phrase requires their presence
 - always sisters of Head (=must be adjacent to their Heads)

Adjunct
 - always sister of bar-level categories in phrases
 - have a modifying function
 - can be stacked
 - the bond between adjuncts and their associated Head is less close than that between a Head and its complements

Adjunction
 - Category B is adjoined to category A by :
makind B a sister of A, and
making A and B daughters of a copy of the original node A

X'-syntax
 - a theory of syntax which stipulates that all the major phrase types are structured in the same way
 - relationships in the X'-format enables us to graphically represent the hierarchical relationships that hold between the various elements of phrases
 - identical for all the phrase types



Subcategorisation
 - Heads subcategorise for their Complements

Subcategorisation frames
e.g. send (verb)
[ - , (NP)NP]
 - concerns only the internal arguments