Movement : S-to-S Raising

NP Movement : Subject-to-Subject Raising
 - the NP Subjects move from the Subject position of the subordinate clause to the Subject position of the matrix clause.
 - linking verbs are one-place predicates that take clausal arguments
e.g. seem (verb)
[1 <Clause, Proposition>]
form       theta-role
 - the clausal arguments can take the form of nonfinite to-infinitive clause or a finite that-clause
 - only in the case of to-infinitive clause does the Subject get displaced under NP-movement

Movement in Interrogative Sentence : Subject-Auxiliary Inversion
 - auxiliary verbs (modals, aspectual, passive be and dummy do) invert with the Subject in interrogative sentences
 - if the original sentence does not contain an auxiliary, then do is added (do-support)

Dummy auxiliary DO
 - 'lone auxiliary' : cannot be preceded or followed by other auxiliaries
 - meaningless
 - solely to perform the function of tense-bearer in interrogative, negative and emphatic sentences
 - hybrid auxiliary : resembles the modal auxiliaries in two aspects, and the aspectual auxiliaries in another.

1 finite
2 + bare infinitive verb form
3 X 3rd person endings (-s) X

Auxiliary V - NICE
1 carry the negative enclitic particle not
invert with the S
3 manifest code
4 carry emphatic stress