Implicature / Conversational Maxims

- an utterance can imply a propisition that is not part of the utterance and that does not follow as a neceessary consequence of the utterance
- implied statement = implicature
- raise the implicature
- implicatures are heavily dependent upon the context of an utterance, including the participants


Cooperative Principle - 4 conversational maxims
- Quantity
- Quality
- Relation
- Manner

* flouting - the intentional violation of a maxim for the purpose of conveying an unstated proposition

When a maxim is violated, we draw an inference (i.e., an implicature)  which make the utterance conform to these maxims.

Maxim of Quantity - each participant's contribution to a conversation should be no more or less informative than required.
(ex. What are you reading? A book.)

Maxim of Quality - each participant's contribution should be truthful and based on sufficient evidence.
(ex. Reno's the capital of Nevada. - Yeah, and London's the capital of New Jersey.)

Maxim of Relation - each participant's contribution should be relevant to the subject of the conversation.
(ex. What time is it? - Well, the paper's already come.)

Maxim of Manner - each participant's contribution should be expressed in a reasonably clear fashion.
(Let's stop and get something to ear. - Okay, but not M-c-D-o-n-a-l-d-s.)