sentence에서 a constituent의 function과, 어떤 form으로 realise되는지 잽싸게 알아차리기!
- Subject, Predicate, Predicator, IO, DO, Adjunct, ...
- noun, verb, determinative, preposition, adverb, adjective, conjunction, interjection, ...
- NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP, PP, ...
- clause (finite, nonfinite, SC)
- there is no one-to-one relationship between a particular function and the object used to carry out that function
- a particular function may be performed by different forms
- everything but the Subject
- main V
- little variety
- constituents which refer to an entity that can be said to undergo the action denoted by the V
- typically have semantic role of Patient
- 'who or what is affected by the action denoted by the V?'
- Goal/Receiver or Beneficiary of the activity denoted by the V
- tells you more about the how, where, or why of the activity or situation expressed by the sentence they occur in
e.g. Ann consider Helen to be an excellent director.
function : DO
form : nonfinite clause (to-infinitive clause)