Complement - Direct Object, Indirect Object

Direct Object
 - entities that undergo the activity or process denoted by the Verb

semantic characterisation
 - S : agentive role
 - DO : patient role

structural properties
1. NP
2. after the main V
3. strong relationship with the V
 - transitive V : requires a DO to complement its meaning
 - intransitive V : do nit need ~.
4. passive sentence에서 DO -> S ("by")

Function
 - complements to verbs

* Complement
 - any constituent whose presence is required by another elements


verbal complement - DO, IO

semantic properties
Subject - role of Agent
DO - role of Patient / Undergoer
IO - Goal / Receiver or Beneficiary

V + IO + DO
Ditransitive Verb

# transitive V + DO
# intransitive V + x

syntactic characteristic
1. NPs
2. cannot occur without a following DO
3. IO always precede DO
S + V + IO + DO
S + V + DO to IO
4. passive sentence 에서 S자리로 올 수 있음
S + V + IO + DO
IO be p.p. DO by S
DO be p.p. to IO by S