Clauses and Clause Hierarchies

Matrix Clause ( = overall sentence)
 - superordinate clauses which are not themselves subordinate to anything else
 - always finite

 - consist of a Subject and a Predicate

Finite clauses
 - contain a finite main V

Nonfinite clauses
 - contain a nonfinite main V

1 to-infinitive clauses
They would hate [Jim to sell his boat].
He likes [to be in Italy in the spring].
2 bare infinitive clause
She made [Otto polish his shoes].
A great thing to do is [dance the night away].
3 -ing participle clause
[Billy discussing politics] is rather funny.
[walking with your lover in the rain] is romantic.
4 -ed participle clause
[The song finished] he switched off the radio.
[incensed by his comment], he stormed out.

Small Clause (SC) - verbless clause
 - lack of overt V
 - contain implicit verb be
Martin consider [Jim a creep]. (Jim to be a creep)
Phil deems [Henry foolish]. (Henry to be foolish)